Tuesday, December 3, 2019
When I was seven, and apparently a handful, my grandma handed me an American Girl Doll catalog to keep me busy for a few minutes while she cleaned the kitchen. Full of detailed dolls dressed in complex outfits with hats and socks and necklaces, I knew right away this was the magazine for me. I looked it over page to page, cover to cover. You would have thought I was going to be tested on the different hair colors, little lunch boxes, and doll sweaters. As I turned each page, I imagined the stories of each dollÃ¢â¬âthe fair blonde doll preparing a picnic in the park for her friends, the spunky brunette getting ready for a camping trip, the reserved red head dressing for a peaceful nightÃ¢â¬â¢s sleep. After begging my mother to get me a subscriptionÃ¢â¬âwith little begging because catalogs are freeÃ¢â¬âI would flip through those pages of untold stories and just let my imagination run free. We will write a custom essay sample on What Alice Taught Me or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It was not long before I was dreaming of holding one of those detailed dolls and writing her story for her; only she cost a full ninety dollars and I only had about three. After picking out the perfect doll to save for, I spent the next half a year scrubbing the bathroom, dusting the picture frames, or doing endless yard work in return for a penny here a quarter there. It was hard work for a little seven year old, but I deemed it worth it. If there were a random job that needed to be done, I was there. I saved and saved and saved until I had finally scrounged up enough for that beautiful doll with an untold story. At seven, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really know, but saving up all that money hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t only earned me a doll, it earned me valuable budgeting skills and an appreciation for hard work. Time raced on and so did AliceÃ¢â¬âthatÃ¢â¬â¢s what I named her. She had been to school, taken violin lessons, gotten miserably sick, gone skating, lost a best friend, tried gymnastics and b roken her foot. She had even had a birthday party with her own chocolate birthday cake. No one came really, except a small portion of my beanie baby collection and the stuffed elephant, and Alice hated the stuffed elephant. But that was okay because she was still nice to the stuffed elephant, and I knew how she felt. I was nice to Karen when she came to my birthday party too. I learned a lot from Alice. When she lost her cute little purple purse, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t cry, but I did. It was her favorite purse. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t cry because I decided she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to cry. I decided she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to cry when her cereal spilled, or when Nancy made fun of the silver ribbon she wore in her hair. Eventually I learned to decide not to cry, and really, that made all the difference in the world. In second grade my teacher had us do writerÃ¢â¬â¢s workshop. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think I had ever had more fun in school than when I got to make up whatever I wanted and put it on paper . I really wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t good at it, but I loved it more than anything. That was when I decided I wanted to be a writer. Alice had taught me to love to imagine and create. She taught me to look at the stars and dream and realize anything is possible with writing. I could choose AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s future, I could choose my charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ future, and I could choose my future. So I kept on writing. Spelling errors, fractured plots, and flat characters were really all my writing was good for. Actually, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t good at allÃ¢â¬âit was terrible. But that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really what mattered. Now Alice sits up on my shelf, her flashy headbands and decorative dresses tucked away. But I try not to tuck away any of the lessons she taught me. I have saved more than a yearÃ¢â¬â¢s college tuition. I learned that hard work does not only pay off in saving money, but also in school work and sports competitions. I know how important it is to value and love others and that I am in control of my happiness. And finally, to always chase my dreams. AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s story has already been written, but mine is only beginning.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
3 Types of Scare Quotes 3 Types of Scare Quotes 3 Types of Scare Quotes By Mark Nichol Framing a word or phrase in scare quotes, or quotation marks used for emphasis, can be an effective tool for signaling editorial distance- that is, subtly and succinctly clarifying that the word or phrase is not of the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s choosing or that it is euphemistic or otherwise specious or spurious. However, too often, scare quotes are gratuitous or redundant, as shown in the examples below: 1. They must look to the senior management to help them acquire this Ã¢â¬Å"big pictureÃ¢â¬ view. This sentence features gratuitous use of scare quotes- gratuitous, because the writer seems to mistakenly assume that any idiom, no matter how quotidian, must be enclosed in quotation marks to signal that the meaning is not literal. The marks are unnecessary with most established idiom: Ã¢â¬Å"They must look to the senior management to help them acquire this big-picture view.Ã¢â¬ 2. The guidelines set forth the separate responsibilities for management and so-called Ã¢â¬Å"front-lineÃ¢â¬ units. Here, the scare quotes are redundant. The quotation marks serve to inform the reader that the writer did not generate a word or phrase; rather, he or she is merely reporting a usage that someone else employed. But so-called signals this fact to the reader, so it is superfluous to use scare quotes as well. When such redundancy occurs, the writer (or editor) should opt to delete the scare quotes and retain so-called: Ã¢â¬Å"The guidelines set forth the separate responsibilities for management and so-called front-line units.Ã¢â¬ 3. That same budget funded quote-unquote Ã¢â¬Å"crisis pregnancy centers.Ã¢â¬ Using the phrase quote-unquote in speech is understandable, because scare quotes are not visible in speech- another approach is to use air quotes, hand gestures that suggest quotation marks- but in writing, doing so is an intrusive alternative to so-called: Ã¢â¬Å"That same budget funded so-called crisis pregnancy centers.Ã¢â¬ (In this case, however, because the writer is criticizing the use of the euphemistic phrase Ã¢â¬Å"crisis pregnancy centersÃ¢â¬ for a type of facility associated with deceptive advertising and misleading information, use of scare quotes in lieu of so-called is also appropriate.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Homograph Examples50 Idioms About Roads and PathsMankind vs. Humankind
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Change Your Life Forever by Spending 1 Hour a Day Doing These 5 Things Most peopleÃ only spend 8 hours per day at work. If you work 5Ã days a week, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s 40 hours. Even if your job is super intense and youÃ¢â¬â¢re working 60-80 hour weeks, you still have hours and hours of time to yourself. Okay, you have to spend a lot of that sleeping- thatÃ¢â¬â¢s important. But in the hours of leisure time left to you, there are things you could be doing to vastly improve your future. Rather than just blowing all those hours on happy hours and Netflix, why not try spending an hour a day doing these 5 things and see what happens? 1. Make your evenings matterDonÃ¢â¬â¢t just rely on your working hours to gain skills and knowledge and make your career magic happen. Try doing a little bit each day off the clock that will help you advance in your career, not just get your daily job tasks done. Take online classes, develop new skills, practice and master old ones. Keep pushing yourself to learn more and do more and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be amazed at how much faste r you advance at work.2. Read moreIt almost doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what youÃ¢â¬â¢re reading. Keeping the habit, taking in knowledge, considering other points of view- all of this makes you more interesting and interested in the world around you. One hour spent learning about a new topic makes you that much closer to being respected by your boss and peers as Ã¢â¬Å"in the know.Ã¢â¬ Plus, the benefits to your general knowledge and vocabulary will be palpable.3. Side projectsIf your company wonÃ¢â¬â¢t give you the opportunity to take your new skills and interests for a test spin, try volunteering. Find a way to have practical expression of what youÃ¢â¬â¢re learning so it can really start to translate into workable results. If nothing else, these side hobbies and projects will help keep you feeling fulfilled.4. Build your networkEven if you just spend 10 minutes a day maintaining your contacts, reach out, participate in conversations on social media or LinkedIn, and pursue new o nes. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll start to see a major difference and that work will really pay off when you need to rely on your network to change jobs or take your career to the next level.5. Start nowDonÃ¢â¬â¢t start this next week- or after the holidays. Start tonight. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t put off what can become such an ingrained habit that you hardly realize it is a chore youÃ¢â¬â¢ve set yourself.If you can get to the point where you are doing these 5 things naturally? YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be well on your way to actualizing your success.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Philosophy - Boethius and Aquinas on the Problem of God's Prescience - Essay Example This only serves to pronounces the clash with freewill. The Problem of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Prescience The conflict hence forms the basic premise of the Problem. God as the master of all things tangible and intangible is assumed to know incomprehensible details about human life and the course it will take. As such, His knowledge about a particular event precedes the event itself, thereby exemplifying his unique ability of knowing the future. This belief in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s ubiquitousness forms one of the core foundations of his Divinity across the board of religions, whether the one in question is Christianity, Judaism or Islam. The Bible, Torah, and the Quran all repeatedly assert His pervasiveness carefully contrasting it with His limitless power. The masses of religions preach the notion that God is to be found everywhere at all times and no thought or eventuality escapes His gaze. Superficially, this ideology is readily admissible but when theologians venture to expound their gifts of insigh t onto the subject, striving to explain the Divine Knowledge, the one immediate problem they tend to notice is the apparent conflict with freewill. This is because the concept of freewill indicates that every human is capable of altering the course of his life as he deems fit by exercising discretionary powers of judgment. If God is to possess all knowledge of all time, this discretion may not in actuality exist, since God would already know the direction a particular individual would be expected to take. If the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s future is already preconceived in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s eternal knowledge, the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s course of action could simply be labeled predetermined, even though he in his own right may be employing the gift of freewill. This notion forms what has come to be known as the Problem of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Prescience. BoethiusÃ¢â¬â¢s ideologies Boethius in his Consolation of Philosophy sought to answer the very questions that formed the crux of the Problem. Firstly, it must be elucidated that incidents are historically conceived by philosophers to be of two kinds, necessary and contingent. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s omniscience pertains to all knowledge that exists in the world, including the murkiest of thoughts that originate in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Hence, any thought, if formulated by a conscious course of judgment in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, should be deemed contingent. It is contingent because it is not necessary for a person to think a certain thought, as his freewill allows him to develop a unique mindset, but if God already knows what his mindset would be, that contingent thought could become a necessary course of action for the person to take, as not taking that course of action would render GodÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge flawed. If it is assumed that God already knows the thought that is about to transpire, its contingency is made redundant. This, in essence, negates freewill and converts seemingly contingent occurrences into necessary occurrences since Go d already knows of their presence. As such, BoethiusÃ¢â¬â¢ twin-prong ideologies regarding the problem emerge. His first limb identifies that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s omniscience and perfection go hand in hand and can never be rebutted,
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - Essay Example Just because a person carries out ritualistic actions or worries once in a while does not necessarily mean that he/she suffers from OCD. It is important to remember that a behavior is considered a disorder only when it starts to interfere with one's daily life - consuming every aspect of it and impairing a person's ability to perform regular functions (e.g., working, establishing good interpersonal relationships). A mother who double checks her child's safety belt more than once before starting her car does not automatically suffer from OCD just because a behavior was repeated. In contrast, an OCD patient may spend between hours to even an entire day worrying about something and/or thinking of ways to prevent bad things from occurring. Although OCD patients are aware that their lives are being disrupted, they have difficulty controlling these disruptive thoughts and behaviors ("Obsessive Compulsive Disorder", 2005). They know that these thoughts and actions are not normal but they cannot stop them. This is what differentiates these types of repetitive thoughts and actions from regular rituals that people perform to ensure order, cleanliness, and safety (e.g., checking for locked doors, arranging files alphabetically for easier access). There is a desire from the person to rid himself of these thoughts and behaviors, but this desire is overruled by his obsessions and compulsions. According t According to the American Psychiatric Association's Fact Sheet on OCD (2005), some symptoms may include but are not limited to the following: cleaning, such as repetitive bathing or inability to hold door knobs; arranging and organizing, wanting everything in a particular order all the time; mental compulsions, such as silently saying phrases or prayers to self; hoarding and collecting various items such as magazines and newspapers, forming piles; and repeated checking, possibly retracing driving routes. Foa and Steketee (as cited in Hilgard, 1953) discovered that the most common compulsions among the list are washing and checking. Almost always, these actions are carried out because of doubt. OCD patients always think that something bad will happen and do not to rely on their senses alone. At the back of their minds, they believe that there are always things that they cannot see (or foresee). For example, a person with OCD may always believe that germs are always there despite repeated washing, or he may think that he forgot to switch an appliance off even after checking the switch numerous times. Rachman & Hodgson as well as Stern & Cobb concluded that these patients are concerned mostly about: completing tasks, preventing harm (self and others), and contracting illness from germs (Hilgard, 1953). In the film "As Good As It Gets," Jack Nicholson's character is a good example of a patient suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. He repetitively washes his hands, each time with a different bar of soap. It takes a long time for him to finally cease this hand-washing session. His cabinets were filled with an unending supply of soaps to accommodate this compulsion. Although seemingly extreme, many OCD patients exhibit behaviors that are beyond normal (perhaps even more pronounced than in this example), which shows that the disorder may really become an impediment to normal functioning, especially when the rituals take over most of their time and effort, robbing them of time to do
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Oppurtunities for Waste Minimization and Their Implementation - Essay Example Therefore, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted its hierarchy of waste minimization ways, which include reduction, recycling, and treatment. Most organizations such as hospitals and schools aim at preserving the balance between the environment, and protecting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Also, in most organizations people must comply with environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations issued by the local, state and federal agencies. Thus, this paper will identify opportunities for waste minimization and implementation within an organization. This will include explanation and application of waste minimization methods in the National Fuel Gas Company, and structure and reasoning of the case for and against the implementation. National Fuel Gas Company is a holding company that was incorporated in 1902. It operates in four segments of business, which include utility segment, pipeline and storage, exploration and production, and energy marketing segme nt. The company operates its own natural gas treating and processing, as well as gathering pipeline facilities. Each of the four segments has its own function under different management. The utility segment operations are conducted by the national fuel gas distribution corporation, which sells and provides transportation of natural gas services. The pipeline and storage segment operations are done by the national fuel gas supply corporation, which provides transportation and storage natural gas. Moreover, the exploration and production segment is conducted by Seneca Resources Corporation, which focuses on the development of purchase of natural gas and oil reserves, while the energy marketing segment operations are done by the national fuel resources that markets natural gas. Waste minimization methods Waste minimization is considered the most effective and beneficial operating procedure. For instance, in a natural gas treating and processing plant, there are many economical and tech nical, waste minimization methods that can be used. For this reason, many oil and gas operators have discovered several waste minimization opportunities and implemented them. Thus, they are enjoying the benefits such as increased revenue, reduced operating and waste management costs, reduced regulatory compliance concerns, improved company image and public relations and reduced potential liability concerns. According to Cheremisinoff (1995), there are three key methods of waste minimization, which include source reduction also known as pollution prevention, recycling, and treatment. Source reduction is the most sought-after method of waste minimization, which reduces or eliminates the generation contaminants at the source, or release of chemical waste from the source. It involves the reduction of the impact of chemical wastes on the environment to the greatest extent. The recycling method is also a desirable approach in waste minimization in which the waste material that is used for a certain purpose is treated and reused in the same or another process. Source reduction and recycling, form the waste minimization. Treatment is the last waste minimization method. It can be conducted in laboratories through elementary neutralization, or through other processes such as chemical,
Friday, November 15, 2019
Constructivist Theory of Development To believe a child is an empty vessel would mean believing that children are unable to think or respond to the world around them. The term empty vessel suggests that babies minds contain nothing and that helping them to develop means simply filling the space with facts. Theorists and scientists have spent many years researching and developing ideas that suggest that even an unborn child is capable of developing sensitivity towards its environment and therefore that human development begins long before the outside world has impressed its influence on a child (Muir Slater 2000, pg.68). However, this essay will explore the theories of how children learn and develop from birth, with emphasis placed on the constructivist learning theory in relation to the development of children from infancy and towards adulthood. Mukherji Odea, (2000, pg.80) describe how soon after birth babies begin trying to make sense of the world around them. They are able to identify sounds, in particular voices, and then subsequently begin to interpret images and the responses of adults. Their ability to read facial expressions develops (Louw, 2002, pg.208) and they use this knowledge to modify their behaviour. This development begins the pattern of constructivist learning that theorists have researched and discussed for many years. The constructivist learning theory essentially means being actively involved in acquiring new knowledge and skills, interacting with ones social and cultural environment and building on or adapting existing knowledge and experiences (Boghossian, 2006). The theory was documented by Piaget who studied his own children in order to increase his understanding of the developmental phases that children move through when learning. Piaget (cited in Slavin, 1994, pg.31) identified four specific age-related stages in a childs development and described how children foster new ideas by using patterns of behaviour or schemes and relating these schemes to the environment around them. Some psychologists questioned Piagets theories regarding the four stages and discovered the language used by Piaget during his studies to be too complex to provide an accurate representation of a childs abilities at any given time (Slavin, 1994, pg.44). One theorist who challenged Piagets theories was Lev Vygotsky, (Oa kley, 2004, pg.42) who suggested that rather than waiting for children to master one level of development before moving onto the next, learning takes place when children are challenged and presented with problems just beyond their current level of understanding. Vygotsky also placed far more emphasis on the role of adults (Gopnik, et al. 2001, pg.18), an idea further developed by Bruner, who proposed that adults were tools that can assist learning by scaffolding the development of language (Bruner, 1983, pp 64-66). Along with many others, by combining elements from all three theorists views of child development, the outcome is the constructivist theory of learning, a theory where prior knowledge is the basis and language, challenge and social interaction, the tools. Sharp, et al. (2009, pg. 51) place much emphasis on prior knowledge being the fundamental basis in the teaching of science. Learning and understanding in science is no longer considered the rote learning of facts and technical vocabulary, but instead means embracing inquisitiveness and the development of enquiry skills that aid the learner in making sense of the world around them (Loxley, et al. 2010, pg. 45). Scientific knowledge and understanding stems from intrinsic curiosity (Sharp, et al. 2009, pg.2). The infant, who continuously touches the objects surrounding him, is investigating the textures of materials and developing his own responses to them. When he then repeatedly returns to the soft toy he demonstrates that his enquiry has formulated knowledge of texture and subsequent actions are based on his initial investigations. The parent who then moves the toy further from the infant and smiles when he finally reaches and nuzzles his prize has provided challenge and social interaction as a means of developing the infants skills further. Rather than an empty vessel that the parent has begun to fill, the infant has demonstrated that he is a constructivist learner who is interacting with his environment and building on his experience. This example demonstrates that both the constructivist learning theory and the development of scientific enquiry apply to even the youngest children and so should be nurtured and developed when teaching science to primary and secondary pupils. Scientific enquiry allows existing ideas to be challenged and knowledge and understanding to be achieved (Loxley, et al. 2010). However, the constructivist theory in the classroom cannot be implemented unless prior knowledge is ascertained. Although the national curriculum (DfEE, 1999) details the legal requirements for the teaching of science, attainment targets are divided into key stages allowing for differentiation based on childrens level of understanding at any particular point in time. Teachers need to identify pupils current levels before they can begin to plan for future learning (OfSTED, cited in Kyriacou, 2007) and work towards these attainment targets. The elicitation of prior knowledge can be achieved in many ways. With language playing such an important role in the development of knowledge (Bruner, op.cit), discussion and careful questioning can be effective ways of allowing children to clarify their own ideas while giving the teacher an opportunity to identify misconceptions in their understanding (Littledyke, 1998, pg.22). Stimulus for the discussion can range from a big question as described by Longuski (2006), the presentation of a Concept cartoon [Appendix A] or through debating a PMI statement [Appendix B]. Card sorting activities allow children to share their ideas and recording responses by using KWL grids [Appendix C] or by asking pupils to draw diagrams or pictures provides concrete evidence of current levels of understanding. Loxley, et al. (2010, pg. 10) explain that children will engage in learning when it is presented in contexts which are familiar. I investigated this theory during a recent science lesson [Appendix D], where I used a story to present a scientific concept. The strategy proved to be particularly effective in eliciting pupils ideas and misconceptions and captured the interest of all children involved. Pupils connected with the lesson due to the presentation of a stimulus in the form of visual and auditory media (Naylor Keogh, 2007). The lesson was filled with discussion with all abilities participating in sharing ideas. The adults role in the lesson was to encourage discussion, clarify responses, assist lower ability pupils in recording their ideas and to offer questions that would promote critical thinking. Childrens responses showed that they were using their personal experiences to form ideas about the scientific problems presented by the cartoon [Appendix E]. Curiosity surrounding o ther aspects of light exploration was stimulated by the lesson, with several children asking questions that they would like to investigate in the future [Appendix F]. The main purpose of this lesson was, however, not only to ascertain prior knowledge but to identify misconceptions that would inform the class teachers planning of the class next unit of work. Misconceptions can originate from a variety of sources. Children can sometimes form incorrect ideas based on their own experiences or interpretation of language, as demonstrated by the common misconception about the term plant food. In response to a natural desire to form relationships with known ideas (Allen, 2010, pg.3), children can also draw inaccurate conclusions to newly encountered concepts (McGraw-Hill, 2011), an example of which is a child who, having observed the sun appearing to move across the horizon, concludes that the sun must actually move around the Earth. Occasionally educational staff can, due to their own misconceptions or lack of subject knowledge, provide information that is not accurate which highlights the need, as outlined by Professional Standard 22, (TDA. 2008) for teachers to be secure in their understanding of the scientific concepts taught to pupils (TDA. 2008, Standard 14) and, through reflection and evaluation, to identify when they need to further the ir own scientific understanding (TDA. 2008, Professional Standard 7a). The transcript of the discussion, [Appendix G] coupled with childrens written recordings of their ideas [Appendix H, I J] highlights the common misconceptions [Appendix K] that the group held about their understanding of the Earth, sun and moon unit of work, studied previously, and their impending studies of light. Misconceptions regarding concepts already taught, in this instance the Earth, sun and moon misunderstandings, provide an example of assessment of learning, or summative assessment, and can be used to judge a childs learning and level of scientific understanding. The misconceptions surrounding the theory of light act as formative assessment as they can be used when considering implications for future progress and to inform planning for the new topic to be covered, as described by Littledyke (1998, pg.21). They also enable the teacher to consider ways of challenging pupils misunderstandings without simply giving them the correct responses, as this could damage their self esteem or lead to them refusing to accept alternative explanations (The National Strategies, 2009). Instead, Miller, et al. (cited in Ansberry Morgan, 2007) explain that children should be provided with opportunities to investigate their own theories, for example through practical investigations or even the use of picture books (Ansberry and Morgan, ibid), while considering those of others. This will enable them to use the experiences on which the misunderstandings were based (assimilation) and then to adapt their original ideas in response to their investigations (accommodat ion) (Allen, 2010, pg.12). Any strategy adopted must address errors in a childs understanding, as failure to do so could prevent further progress (The National Strategies, ibid:3). Formative assessment (TDA. 2008, Standard 12) isnt, however, a tool to be used exclusively to elicit pre-conceptions about a topic to be covered. Yeomans and Arnold (2006) describe it is an essential part of planning and preparation that should be carried out continuously to enable teachers to evaluate the impact of their teaching (TDA. 2008, Standard 29), modify their approaches and assess how well children are progressing. It enables teachers to compare childrens levels of understanding with age appropriate objectives and those listed in the National Curriculum for Science. Analysis of an elicitation activity will also enable the teacher to plan differentiated activities to address individual pupils strengths or areas of weakness. Together with consideration for differences in learning styles and factors that may be affecting learning, this analysis will ensure that the needs of individuals are met and that all children achieve their potential (TDA. 2008, Standard 10). However, this type of personalisation of learning is not straightforward and requires commitment to an ethos, where every learner matters and every learners learning needs should, if possible, be accommodated (Keeley-Browne, 2007, pg.133). Although there are links, there are also differences between differentiated and personalised learning. Differentiation is a more traditional approach to teaching with pupils often grouped by ability and with tasks that match that ability (Kendall-Seater, 2005, pg.24). Personalised learning is a progressive approach where the childs experiences are the focus and results are judged by outcome or by the extent of resources supplied (Kendall-Seater, ibid). Both approaches benefit from consideration for childrens previous knowledge and experiences, on which they can build new ideas. Despite agreeing with this principle, experts have identified difficulties that could occur by implementing the constructivist teaching and learning theories. Keogh Naylor (1996) have questioned the plausibility of considering the prior knowledge of every pupil, and Skidmore Gallagher (2005) acknowledged the difficulties that a change in approach might present to teachers. In her research report, Chin (2006) discusses difficulties between balancing the responsibility of teachers as providers of accurate scientific facts with them being facilitators of child-initiated learning. Considering each of these experts reservations means viewing constructivist teaching and learning in science as a challenging process where the acquisition of scientific knowledge is the main goal that can be achieved through the amalgamation of an understanding of childrens developmental processes and the commitment from teachers to providing opportunities for personal enquiry with sound subject knowledge. In summary, teachers need to first recognize that children are not empty vessels but that they have a valuable wealth of scientific knowledge and experience on which to construct and adapt new ideas. Teachers should embrace and nurture curiosity, promote critical thinking and provide creative learning environments that facilitate purposeful exploration and social interaction. Careful consideration has to be given towards the National Curriculum for Science objectives; however, as is often the case with preparation for statutory testing (POST, 2003), it should not be seen as a constraint that restricts creativity or that initiates a return to the meaningless rote learning strategies (Stones, 1984, pg.64) of the past. Assessment opportunities should be explored, and the results used effectively to inform and enable an inclusive, personalised curriculum that allows children to become active participants with ownership of their own learning.